【翻译工程】印毛共的马列毛基本教程

项目

#1

前言:本工程较为庞大,很显然并非我一人就可以完成,故希望大家都可以参与进来,一起讨论,正好也提高各位的英语水平了。翻译完成之后将会制作成PDF文档,诸位参与翻译的将会留名于译者一览,以表感谢。

原文链接:http://library.redspark.nu/Marxism-Leninism-Maoism_Basic_Course

此文档由印度共产党(毛主义)编写,并成为他们的学习指导框架。此文档是马列毛和国际共运的典范总结和概述。我之所以转载此文,盖使更多人可以从中学习了解。


#3

1.第一章: 介绍
2.第二章:什么是马列毛主义?
3.第三章:社会经济条件致使马克思主义问世
4.第四章:马克思和恩格斯在成为马克思主义者之前的早年生活
5.第五章:马克思主义的三大源头
6.第六章:马克思主义哲学的基本形式 : 辩证唯物主义和历史唯物主义
7.第七章: 对空想社会主义的斗争和科学社会主义的编制
8.第八章:马克思主义政治经济学
9.第九章:马克思主义与工人阶级的联系
10.第十章:从巴黎公社中所学到的
11.第十一章:马克思主义的传播和机会主义的兴起
12.第十二章:马克思主义在俄国 ---- 列宁的早年生活
13.第十三章:列宁及其新式无产阶级政党
14.第十四章:1905俄国资产阶级革命 : 无产阶级革命策略的发展
15.第十五章: 第一次世界大战: 机会主义与革命战术
16.第十六章:列宁的分析:帝国主义是资本主义最高的形式
17.第十七章:伟大的十月革命
18.第十八章:第三国际的建立
19.第十九章:国家与殖民地之问题
20.第二十章:斯大林的早年生活与1917革命时的贡献
21.第二十一章:社会主义建设:苏联的经验
22.第二十二章:对托派及其他机会主义的斗争
23.第二十三章:第二次世界大战时期的策略
24.第二十四章:毛主席的早年
25.第二十五章:毛主席对右派和“左”的斗争以及中国革命的胜利
26.第二十六章:殖民地与半殖民地革命的路径
27.第二十七章: 毛主席的哲学
28.第二十八章: 毛主席在党内
29.第二十九章:社会主义建设:中国的经验
30.第三十章:伟大的辩论:毛主席对赫鲁晓夫现代修正主义的斗争
31.第三十一章:伟大的无产阶级文化大革命
32.第三十二章: 毛主席去世之后


#4

第一章:介绍

我们中许多人认为革命活动是实际行动,觉得为何要用这些思想理论的条条框框来烦我,这些是给学者和知识分子的,当下最要紧的事情是找上工作。基层干部与党员觉得学习由中央与上面派发的仿真是种痛苦,许多高层党员也觉得在推行理论方面太过高压了。

另外,有少许人觉得须知“伟大导师”的方方面面才能“恰当好处”的推行。他们花了大把的时间来读书,同时将读过的东西当成教条来做。

在我们的学习过程中,要避免这两大态度。所有同志应给予充足的时间与经理来学习我们基本的指导方针 —— 马克思列宁主义及毛泽东思想(以下简称马列毛)。比起大量阅读其他读物,更加深刻的理解我们的指导思想的基础与大致的风向尤为重要。若能将其应用到日常的工作当中,无论是对个人还是整个党来说,我们的实践能力就会大幅增强。我们常常仅通过周遭有限的经历来理解和分析整个世界,这也常常会导致错误的结论。用恰当的方式来解释马列毛,可使得我们免除许多不该犯的错误。对马列毛的浅层理解,只能使我们从文字层面来理解党的立场和决定,并且很难体会到其中的精髓和意志。深刻领悟马列毛可以避免很多不该犯的错误。通过对马列毛的学习,我们可以把握我们在世界革命中的坐标一集客服对其的消极思想,吸收其精华的一面,同时在实际中区别好与坏。因此,对机会主义的辨别、批判、斗争极为重要。一言蔽之:我们行动必须依靠马列毛的框架

本马列毛基本教程旨在为行动派介绍我们指导思想主要方面。我们的理论最重要的是一个“实用”的理论,那便意味着将会付诸于实践。本理论就已经出现在许多阶级斗争之中了。因此,必须了解发现并制定这些基本准则的无产阶级伟大导师 —— 马克思、恩格斯、列宁、斯大林、毛泽东的具体物质条件和他们的社会实践。故本书将会通过介绍马列毛的成长与发展的历史进程。
诸如社会经济 主要的政治事件和阶级斗争等其诞生的基本概念将会进行简要的介绍。为了详细了解其特定方面,则需要进行更具体的学习。本基础教程的目的是了解我们意识形态在发展过程中的必要基础,历史条件和环境,具体立场和理论而出的。

那么,我们就先来学习吧!


#7

我计划将该项目放到GitHub或者其他平台上,大家可以一起翻译该小册子,如果莱茵这边感兴趣,过一阵在GitHub上线后我会特地来回复


#8

:relaxed:
终于有人响应了


#9

支持,辛苦了!:+1:


#10

本站已经建立,欢迎协同翻译
http://redwiki.top/mw19/index.php/首页


#11

开不开啊。。。。


#12

可能需要翻墙,你试试


#13

已经可以在墙内正常浏览了


#14

个人提供一个建议:印共(毛)的同志是把Maoism和MaoZeDong Thought 区分的。我建议翻译的同志们把Marxism-Leninism-Maoism翻译成马列毛主义。


#15

英语水平有限,敬请谅解。

As we have seen earlier Marx developed his principles of political economy in continuation of and in opposition to the bourgeois political economy of the English economists.
正如我们所见,早期马克思在不断发展他的政治经济学原理来对抗英国经济学家的资产阶级政治经济学。
Most of Marx’ earlier economic writings from 1844 to 1859 were in the form of a critique of bourgeois political economy.
1844年到1859年的马克思的早期经济学著作大多是以对资产阶级政治经济学的批判形式出现。
He countered the claims of the bourgeois political economists that capitalism was a permanent and universal system.
他反驳了资产阶级政治经济学家认为资本主义是一种永恒并普遍的系统的宣称。
On the other hand he proved that capitalism could exist only for a limited period and was destined to be overthrown and replaced by a new and higher social system.
在另一方面,他证明了资本主义仅仅能够在有限的时期内存在,而且注定会被推翻并被一个新的更高级的社会系统取代。
His later economic analysis, particularly the various volumes of his main work, Capital, concentrated on discovering the economic laws of capitalism.
他随后的经济学分析,尤其是他主要的集大成的作品——资本论,专注于发现资本主义的经济规律。
The in-depth analysis of the relations of production in capitalist society, in their origin, development and decline, thus forms the main content of Marx’ political economy.
对于资本主义社会的商品联系的深入分析——商品的起源、发展和衰退,由此形成了马克思政治经济学的主要内容。
Bourgeois political economists always made their analysis in the form of a relation between things i.e. the exchange of one commodity for another.
资产阶级政治经济学家经常从物品联系的角度开始他们的分析即一个商品同另一个商品的交换。
Marx however showed that economics deals not with things but with relations between persons, and in the last resort between classes.
然而马克思则表明经济学要解决的不是物与物之间的联系而是人与人之间的联系,并且最后归结于阶级关系。
Since under capitalism it is the production of commodities that dominates, Marx started his analysis with an analysis of the commodity.
因为商品生产处于资本主义中的支配地位,所以马克思的分析就从对于商品的分析开始。
He pointed out that the exchange of commodities was not a mere exchange of things but actually an expression of the relation between individual producers in society who have been linked by the market.
他指出商品交换不仅仅是物品的交换,而事实上是社会中被市场所联系的个人生产者之间联系的表现
Though commodity exchange has existed for thousands of years, it is only with the development of money and the birth of capitalism that it reaches its peak linking up the entire economic life of millions of individual producers throughout society into one whole.
尽管商品交换已经存在了上千年,但它仅在随着货币发展和资本主义的诞生时到达了它的顶点,并把遍及社会的上百万的个体生产者的全部经济生活连结成一个整体。
Capitalism even converts the labour power of the worker into a commodity that is bought and sold freely in the market place.
资本主义甚至把劳动者的劳动力变成市场上自由买卖的商品。
The wageworker sells his labour power to the owner of the means of production, i.e. the capitalist.
依靠工资为生的劳动者出卖他们的劳动力给生产资料的所有者即资本家。
The worker spends one part of his working day producing the equivalent of his wage, i.e. producing what is necessary to cover the cost of maintaining himself and his family.
劳动者花费他工作日的一部分时间来生产他工资的等价物即生产维持他本人劳动力和他家庭的必要生活资料。
The other part of his working day is spent producing for the maintenance and growth of the capitalist.
他工作日的另外一个部分则用于维持资本家的生活和资本的增殖。
The worker gets absolutely no payment from this production which is for the capitalist.
工人完全没有从为了资本家而生产的产品中得到任何的报酬。
This additional value which every worker produces, over and above the value necessary to earn his wage and maintain himself, Marx called surplus value.
每个工人生产的这部分额外价值,高于工人获得必要工资以维持其劳动力的价值,马克思称其为剩余价值。
It is the source of profit and the source of wealth of the capitalist class.
这就是利润的来源和资产阶级财富的来源。
The discovery of the concept of surplus value exposed the nature of exploitation of the working class.
剩余价值概念的发现揭示了工人阶级遭受剥削的原理。
It also brought out the source of the antagonism between the proletariat and the bourgeoisie.
它同样揭示了无产阶级和资产阶级相对立的来源。
This class antagonism was the principal manifestation of the fundamental contradiction of capitalist society: the contradiction between the social character of production and the private character of ownership.
阶级对立是资本主义社会基本矛盾的基本表现:社会化生产和私人所有制的矛盾。

This discovery of surplus value was referred to by Engels as the second important discovery of Marx (along with the discovery of the materialist conception of history).
剩余价值的发现被恩格斯认为是马克思第二个重要的发现(连同唯物史观的发现)
Lenin called the doctrine of surplus value as the corner stone of Marx’ economic theory.
列宁把剩余价值学说称作马克思经济理论的基石。
Marx also analysed in detail the periodic economic crises that repeatedly affected capitalism.
马克思还细致分析了不断重复影响资本主义的周期性经济危机。
He explained capitalist crises also as another manifestation of the fundamental contradiction of capitalism.
他解释道资本主义经济危机也是资本主义基本矛盾的另一种表现。
He thus exposed the falsehood of the bourgeois economists who at that time propagated that capitalism could not face any crisis, as the operation of the market would solve all problems.
因此他揭示了在那时宣称资本主义不会面临任何危机并且市场运行能够解决所有问题的资产阶级经济学家的错误。
They tried to present that whatever was produced by the capitalist would automatically be sold in the market place.
他们试图证明资本家生产的任何商品都会在市场上自动卖出。
Marx however exposed that the nature of the working of capitalism itself would lead inevitably to crisis.
然而马克思揭示了资本主义自身的运行机制会不可避免的导致经济危机。
He showed how capitalists in their desperate urge to earn more and more profits went on madly increasing production.
他向我们展示了资本家是如何通过疯狂的扩大生产来急切并极力的赚取越来越多的利润。
However at the same time every capitalist tried to maintain a higher rate of profit by cutting the wage rates of his workers and throwing them into poverty.
然而与此同时每个资本家都试图通过削减工人的工资比率并把他们抛向贫穷来维持一个更高的利润率。
The working class composes the largest section in society and the poverty of the working class automatically means the reduction of their capacity to buy the goods available in the market.
工人阶级成为了社会组成的一个最大部分,并且工人阶级的贫穷必然意味着他们对于市场上商品购买力的下降。
Thus on the one hand the capitalist class goes on increasing the production of goods being supplied to the market, whereas on the other hand it goes on reducing the buying capacity of a large section of the buyers in the very same market.
因此在这方面资产阶级不断扩大用于市场供给的商品生产,然而在另一方面他们不断削减在有限市场内作为购买者最大组成部分的工人阶级的购买能力。
This naturally leads to a severe contradiction between the expansion of production on one hand and the contraction of the market on the other hand.
一方面这自然就导致了生产扩张之间的激烈矛盾和另一方面的市场收缩
The result is a crisis of overproduction where the market is flooded with unsold goods.
这样的结果就是由于市场上充斥着卖不出去的商品而带来的生产过剩的危机。
Numerous capitalists are thrown into bankruptcy.
数不清的资本家被抛入破产的队伍。
Lakhs (100,000s) of workers are thrown out of their jobs and forced into starvation at the same as the shops are filled with goods that remained unused because there is no one to buy them.
数以万计的工人们失去了他们的工作并且被迫面对饥饿,然而于此同时商店内充满了未被使用的商品因为工人们没有人有能力购买它们。
Marx further concluded that the anarchy of these crises of capitalism could only be resolved by resolving the fundamental contradiction of capitalism between the social character of production and the private character of ownership.
马克思深入总结了资本主义经济危机的无政府状态只能通过解决资本主义基本矛盾即社会化生产和私人占有制之间的矛盾来解决。
This could only be done by overthrowing the capitalist system and establishing socialism and communism, and thus giving a social character to the ownership of the means of production.
这只能通过推翻资本主义制度和建立社会主义与共产主义来实现,并且这样实现生产资料公有制。
Marx showed that the social force that would bring about this revolution had been created by capitalism itself; it was the proletariat class.
马克思表明资本主义创造了他们自身的掘墓人,那便是无产阶级。
It was the proletariat alone who had no interest in continuing the present system of exploitation and private ownership. It alone had the interest and capacity to establish socialism.
只有无产阶级才不会对保留现有剥削制度和私人所有制有任何意愿。只有无产阶级才有意愿并且有能力建立社会主义。
Marx analysed how every crisis intensified the contradictions of the capitalist system.
马克思分析了每次经济危机是如何激化资本主义制度的矛盾。
He described the process with each crisis of centralisation of capital into the hands of a smaller and smaller handful of capitalists.
他描述道每次经济危机都把更多的资本集中到更少的资本家手中。
This proceeded alongside the immense growth in the misery and discontent of the vast mass of workers.
这个进程伴随着广大劳动者的痛苦和不满极大增长。
As the contradictions of capitalism sharpened, the revolutionary upheavals of the proletariat grew in strength, finally resulting in revolution, the confiscation of the capital of the capitalists and the building of a socialist society with a social character of ownership suited to the social character of production.
当资本主义的矛盾变得尖锐,无产阶级的革命巨变不断积蓄力量,最终会走向革命,没收资本家的私人资本并通过建立生产资料公有制来适应社会化生产来建设社会主义社会。
In this way, Marx, starting from the economy’s most basic unit – the commodity – brings out the nature of the economic laws governing capitalism.
这样,马克思的分析开始自经济的最基本单位——商品,从而揭示了支配资本主义的经济规律的原理。
He thus exposes the scientific economic basis for the socialist revolution and the road to communism.
于是他揭示了社会主义革命的科学经济基础以及通往共产主义的道路。


#16


精力?


#17

对。。。。。。。。。。。。。。。。


#18

现在怎么没人了…
等放假了我也加入


#19


三分之四是四分之三吧?


#20

谢谢指出,如果还有其他错漏之处也请尽情指出。


#21

我们现在准备重新开始


#22

关于部分字词的勘误
p18,第三段“两人人”重复,“人”应删去。
p56,第二段,“大罢工罢工”重复,“罢工”应删去。
P94,最末段,“其着作”中“着”应改为“著”。
P105,第一段,第二行,“战略战略意义”重复“战略”,应删去。
第四行“亦亦商”,不知原文为何意?
P113,第三段,“在于这”中“于”应改为“与”。
P118,第二段,“为了、为了纠正”重复“为了”应删去。
P130,第三段,“阶级斗争,阶级斗争和党内斗争”重复“阶级斗争”应删去。
P140,第三段,“他让同其他社会主义国家的关系……”,不知原文为何意?
P146,第五段,“处及人们灵魂……”中“处”应改为“触”。
P147,第一段,“斗跨走资……”中“跨”应改为“垮”。
此外如还有些文字未订正,请同志们指出。


#23

谢谢指出!